Background information on the word objective

How to Frame Goals and Objectives in a Project Proposal

To save this word, you'll need to log in. It's important to learn about other cultures. The company's corporate culture is focused on increasing profits. Fishless, Too. What Could Go Wrong? Send us feedback. See More First Known Use of culture Noun 15th century, in the meaning defined at sense 4 Verb , in the meaning defined at sense 1 History and Etymology for culture Noun and Verb Middle English, cultivated land, cultivation, from Anglo-French, from Latin cultura , from cultus , past participle — see cult Keep scrolling for more Learn More about culture Share culture Post the Definition of culture to Facebook Share the Definition of culture on Twitter Resources for culture Time Traveler!

Explore the year a word first appeared From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. Trending: As the New School Year Begins, a Spike in Lookups for 'Culture' Back to school means a spike in lookups for 'culture' Dictionary Entries near culture cultural nature cultural sociology culturati culture culture and personality culture area culture-bound Phrases Related to culture culture of success Statistics for culture Last Updated 3 Nov Look-up Popularity Time Traveler for culture The first known use of culture was in the 15th century See more words from the same century Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for culture culture.

Entry 1 of 2 : the beliefs, customs, arts, etc.


Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Getting our ducks in a row on it. Is there one standard way? Moreover, the losses associated with erroneously accepting or rejecting that hypothesis depend on the context of application which may be unbeknownst to the experimenter.

This speaks for a division of labor where scientists restrict themselves to an evidential interpretation of statistical tests , and leave the actual decisions to policy-makers and regulatory agencies. Such an approach has been developed by Ronald A. Fisher — , and it has become the orthodox solution to statistical inference problems. In other words, if a result has lower probability under the null hypothesis H than most other possible results, then it undermines the tenability of H :. Fisher Then, the strength of evidence against the tested hypothesis is equal to the p-value —the probability of obtaining a result that is as least as extreme as the actually observed data.

Figure 1 gives a graphical illustration. This probability measures how strongly E speaks against H , compared to other possible results, and the lower it is, the stronger the evidence against H. Conventionally, a p-value smaller than. This concept of evidence is apparently objective, but beset with a variety of problems see Sprenger for a detailed discussion. There is no intersubjectively compelling justification why this or any other particular standard of evidence should be used in order to quantify the concept of significance.

From an institutional point of view, the frequentist conception of p-values is problematic as well. What is more, even in the absence of a causal relation between two quantities, one may find a significant and therefore publishable result by pure chance. The probability that this happens by accident is equal to the statistical significance threshold i. Ioannidis therefore concludes that most published research findings are false —an effect partially due to the frequentist logic of evidence.

Indeed, researchers often fail to replicate findings by another scientific team, and periods of excitement and subsequent disappointment are not uncommon in frontier science. Finally, there is a principled philosophical objection against the objectivity of frequentist evidence: the sample space dependence. That is, in frequentist statistics, the strength of the evidence depends on which results could have been observed but were not observed.

For instance, the post-experimental assessment of the evidence has to be changed when we learn about a defect in our measurement instrument, even if that defect is not relevant for the range of the actually observed results! On a Bayesian reading, this implies that frequentist evidence statements depend on the intentions of the experimenter Edwards, Lindman and Savage ; Sprenger : Would she have continued the trial if the results had been different? How would she have reacted to unforeseen circumstances? Freedom from personal bias seems hard to realize if one's inference depends on the answer to such questions.

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A middle ground between frequentist and Bayesian inference is provided by likelihoodist inference, based on Alan Turing and I. This is because the probabilities of the actual evidence E under the competing hypotheses are called the likelihoods of H on E. Therefore, a minority of statisticians e. However, the likelihoodist cannot use subjective probability in order to transform a composite hypothesis into a simple one.

Summing up our findings, no statistical theory of evidence manages to eliminate all sources of personal bias and idiosyncrasy. The Bayesian is honest about it: she considers subjective assumptions to be ineliminable from scientific reasoning. This does not rule out that constrastive aspects of statistical evidence may be quantified in an objective way, e. The frequentist conception based on p-values still dominates statistical practice, but it suffers from several conceptual drawbacks, and in particular the misleading impression of objectivity.

This also has far-reaching implications for fields such as evidence-based medicine, where randomized controlled trials the most valuable source of evidence are typically interpreted in a frequentist way. A defense of frequentist inference should, in our opinion, stress that the relatively rigid rules for interpreting statistical evidence facilitate communication and assessment of research results in the scientific community—something that is harder to achieve for a Bayesian.

So far everything we discussed was meant to apply across all or at least most of the sciences. In this section we will look at a number of specific issues that arise in the social science, in economics, and in evidence-based medicine.

There is a long tradition in the philosophy of social science maintaining that there is a gulf in terms of both goals as well as methods between the natural and the social sciences. See also the entries on hermeneutics and Max Weber. Understood this way, social science lacks objectivity in more than one sense. One of the more important debates concerning objectivity in the social sciences concerns the role value judgments play and, importantly, whether value-laden research entails claims about the desirability of actions.

Max Weber held that the social sciences are necessarily value laden. However, they can achieve some degree of objectivity by keeping out the social researcher's views about whether agents' goals are commendable. In a similar vein, contemporary economics can be said to be value laden because it predicts and explains social phenomena on the basis of agents' preferences. Nevertheless, economists are adamant that economists are not in the business of telling people what they ought to value. All knowledge of cultural reality, as may be seen, is always knowledge from particular points of view.

The reason for this is twofold. First, social reality is too complex to admit of full description and explanation. So we have to select. This is because, second, in the social sciences we want to understand social phenomena in their individuality, that is, in their unique configurations that have significance for us. Values solve a selection problem. They tell us what research questions we ought to address because they inform us about the cultural importance of social phenomena:. Only a small portion of existing concrete reality is colored by our value-conditioned interest and it alone is significant to us.

What is Object Oriented Programming (OOPS)? Simple Explanation for Beginners

It is significant because it reveals relationships which are important to use due to their connection with our values. It is important to note that Weber did not think that social and natural science were different in kind, as Dilthey and others did. Social science too examines the causes of phenomena of interest, and natural science too often seeks to explain natural phenomena in their individual constellations.

The role of causal laws is different in the two fields, however.

Whereas establishing a causal law is often an end in itself in the natural sciences, in the social sciences laws play an attenuated and accompanying role as mere means to explain cultural phenomena in their uniqueness. Nevertheless, for Weber social science remained objective in at least two ways. First, once research questions of interest have been settled, answers about the causes of culturally significant phenomena do not depend on the idiosyncrasies of an individual researcher:.

Weber a []: 84, emphasis original. The claims of social science can therefore be objective in our third sense see section 4.

Given a policy goal, a social scientist could make recommendations about effective strategies to reach the goal; but social science was to be value-free in the sense of not taking a stance on the desirability of the goals themselves. This leads us to our conception of objectivity as freedom from values. Contemporary mainstream economists hold a view concerning objectivity that mirrors Max Weber's see above. On the one hand, it is clear that value judgments are at the heart of economic theorizing.

Preferences are evaluations. Thus, to the extent that economists predict and explain market behavior in terms of rational choice theory, they predict and explain market behavior in a way laden with value judgments. Optimality is determined by the agent's desires, not the converse. Paternotte —8. However, standard economics has no therapeutic ambition, i.

How to Frame Goals and Objectives in a Project Proposal

Economics cannot distinguish between choices that maximize happiness, choices that reflect a sense of duty, or choices that are the response to some impulse. Moreover, standard economics takes no position on the question of which of those objectives the agent should pursue. Gul and Pesendorfer 8. According to the standard view, all that rational choice theory demands is that people's preferences are internally consistent; it has no business in telling people what they ought to prefer, whether their preferences are consistent with external norms or values.

Economics is thus value-laden, but laden with the values of the agents whose behavior it seeks to predict and explain and not with the values of those who seek to predict and explain this behavior.

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Whether or not social science, and economics in particular, can be objective in this—Weber's and the contemporary economists'—sense is controversial. On the one hand, there are some reasons to believe that rational choice theory which is at work not only in economics but also in political science and other social sciences cannot be applied to empirical phenomena without referring to external norms or values Sen ; Reiss On the other hand, it is not clear that economists and other social scientists qua social scientists shouldn't participate in a debate about social goals. For one thing, trying to do welfare analysis in the standard Weberian way tends to obscure rather than to eliminate normative commitments Putnam and Walsh Obscuring value judgments can be detrimental to the social scientist as policy adviser because it will hamper rather than promote trust in social science.

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For another, economists are in a prime position to contribute to ethical debates, for a variety of reasons, and should therefore take this responsibility seriously Atkinson Evidence-based medicine de-emphasizes intuition, unsystematic clinical experience, and pathophysiological rationale as sufficient grounds for clinical decision making and stresses the examination of evidence from clinical research. Guyatt et al. But proponents of evidence-based practices have a much narrower concept of evidence in mind: analyses of the results of randomized controlled trials RCTs.

This movement is now very strong in biomedical research, development economics and a number of areas of social science, especially psychology, education and social policy, especially in the English speaking world.